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Reach Effectiveness Adoption Implementation Maintenance (RE-AIM)

Welcome to!

We trust that you had a busy and productive summer. To kick off our Fall series of blog posts, we would like to address a common RE-AIM question:

Can RE-AIM be used in planning an intervention?

In reviews we have received from grant proposals and papers using the framework, we sometimes get the feedback that RE-AIM is an evaluation framework and not a theory or tool for intervention planning.

One thing that is correct is that RE-AIM is not a theory, it is an outcome model. As such, using the framework to ensure that strategies are developed to enhance each outcome is a valid approach. 

For those who are looking for good ways to implement a RE-AIM planning process, we recommend reading “RE-AIM for Program Planning: Overview and Application” developed by Drs. Basia Belza, Deborah Toobert, and Russ Glasgow.

In their monograph, they provide a RE-AIM scenario of implementing an effective program for increasing physical activity in sedentary, at-risk older adults. The authors argue that focusing on effectiveness (and thereby ignoring the other elements of RE-AIM) negatively impacts the translation of this program for older adults.

    Belza Table


However, if researchers plan to intervene upon one or two additional elements, it may drastically improve the public health impact.

We hope this helps you for your next intervention planning process! Let us know how you target multiple elements of RE-AIM in your own practice.

Until next time,

Samantha Harden, Paul Estabrooks and the RE-AIM Workgroup 


This site provides an explanation of and resources for those wanting to apply the RE-AIM framework. The RE-AIM framework is designed to enhance the quality, speed, and public health impact of efforts to translate research into practice in five steps:

  • Reach your intended target population
  • Efficacy or effectiveness
  • Adoption by target staff, settings, or institutions
  • Implementation consistency, costs and adaptations made during delivery
  • Maintenance of intervention effects in individuals and settings over time


The Key Features of RE-AIM website are:

  • Tools and resources to facilitate implementation
  • A comprehensive list of RE-AIM publications and presentations organized alphabetically by year

Please send comments and suggestions or your own RE-AIM related work for inclusion on the site to Samantha Harden.

What's New


New Presentations:

Estabrooks PA, Harden SM, Kessler R, Glasgow RE. Applying the RE-AIM Framework to Intervention Planning and Evaluation. Society of Behavioral Medicine Annual Meeting. Philadelphia, PA. April 2014. 

Lee RE & O'Connor. RE-AIM Workshop: Sustainability. El XVI Congreso Internacional de Avances en Medicine. Guadalajara, Mexico. February 2014. 

Estabrooks et al. Fundamentals of the RE-AIM Framework. El XVI Congreso Internacional de Avances en Medicine. Guadalajara, Mexico. February 2014.  

New Publications

Jankowski CM, Ory MG, Friedman DB, Dwyer A, Birken SA, Risendal B.Searching for maintenance in exercise interventions for cancer survivors.J Cancer Surviv. 2014 Aug 8. [Epub ahead of print].

Boersma P, van Weert JC, Lakerveld J, Dröes RM. The art of successful implementation of psychosocial interventions in residential dementia care: a systematic review of the literature based on the RE-AIM framework. Int Psychogeriatr. 2014 Aug 5:1-17. [Epub ahead of print]

Shanahan M, Fleming P, Nocera M, Sullivan K, Murphy R, Zolotor A.Process evaluation of a statewide abusive head trauma prevention program. Eval Program Plann. 2014 Jul 16;47C:18-25. doi: 10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2014.07.002.