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Reach Effectiveness Adoption Implementation Maintenance (RE-AIM)

Welcome to!

This month we’d like to highlight the work of Matthews and colleagues (2014). They conducted a systematic review of physical activity interventions for the management of type 2 diabetes.

Their innovative approach: Focused on the generalizability of these physical activity management interventions in real world settings by examining: 

- Reach of the intervention for the intended target population.

- Effectiveness of the intervention in achieving the desired positive outcomes.

- Adoption of the intervention by target staff, venues and/or organisations.

- Implementation, consistency and adaptation of the intervention protocol in practice.

- Maintenance of intervention effects on individuals or settings over time.


Twelve interventions were included in the final synthesis. Of note, there was minimal information regarding adoption level indicators. The good news? There were two articles that provided thorough adoption-level data (see King et al and Osborne). 

Only half of the studies reported aspects of implementation. But, Matthews and colleagues highlight that there was also a wide range of process evaluation  measures across the studies (e.g., session records, focus groups or interviews with staff and patients). These process evaluation efforts assist in replication and understanding adaptations during program delivery.


Matthews and colleagues conclude that effective physical activity-based type 2 diabetes management studies can be translated into everyday settings and delivered by a variety of staff/peers. They also  conclude that it was difficult to compare results across the 12 studies, and support the use of outcome evaluations, such as RE-AIM, in order to generalize research findings.

Until next time,

Samantha Harden and the RE-AIM Workgroup


This site provides an explanation of and resources for those wanting to apply the RE-AIM framework. The RE-AIM framework is designed to enhance the quality, speed, and public health impact of efforts to translate research into practice in five steps:

  • Reach your intended target population
  • Efficacy or effectiveness
  • Adoption by target staff, settings, or institutions
  • Implementation consistency, costs and adaptations made during delivery
  • Maintenance of intervention effects in individuals and settings over time


The Key Features of RE-AIM website are:

  • Tools and resources to facilitate implementation
  • A comprehensive list of RE-AIM publications and presentations organized alphabetically by year

Please send comments and suggestions or your own RE-AIM related work for inclusion on the site to Samantha Harden.

What's New


New Presentations:

Estabrooks PA, Harden SM, Kessler R, Glasgow RE. Applying the RE-AIM Framework to Intervention Planning and Evaluation. Society of Behavioral Medicine Annual Meeting. Philadelphia, PA. April 2014. 

Lee RE & O'Connor. RE-AIM Workshop: Sustainability. El XVI Congreso Internacional de Avances en Medicine. Guadalajara, Mexico. February 2014. 

Estabrooks et al. Fundamentals of the RE-AIM Framework. El XVI Congreso Internacional de Avances en Medicine. Guadalajara, Mexico. February 2014.  

New Publications

Casey MM, Telford A, Mooney A, Harvey JT, Eime RM, Payne WR. Linking secondary school physical education with community sport and recreation for girls: a process evaluation. BMC Public Health. 2014 Oct 6;14(1):1039. [Epub ahead of print]. 

Gaglio B, Phillips SM, Heurtin-Roberts S, Sanchez MA, Glasgow RE.How pragmatic is it? Lessons learned using PRECIS and RE-AIM for determining pragmatic characteristics of research. Implement Sci. 2014 Aug 28;9:96. doi: 10.1186/s13012-014-0096-x.